- Amino Acid: An organic
molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino
acids serve as the monomers of proteins.
- Complementary: The
two strands of DNA are said to be complementary to each
other; that is, the sequences of bases on one strand
determines the sequences of bases on the other. For
example adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with
cytosine. Likewise, mRNA is also complementary to DNA.
However, uracil replaces thymine in DNA. The DNA sequence
ATTCGA would be copied by mRNA UAAGCU.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA):
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable
of replicating and determining the inherited structure of
a cell's proteins.
Cycle Sequencing: A method
used for determining the nucleotide sequence of DNA
molecules. It involves synthesizing in vitro DNA strands
complementary to one of the strands of DNA being
sequenced. The method is based on the random
incorporation of a modified nucleotide. A series of DNA
fragments is synthesized that reflects all the positions
of the modified nucleotides, and thus ultimately the
sequence of the DNA.
Messenger RNA (mRNA): A type
of RNA synthesized from DNA in the genetic material that
attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the
primary structure of a protein.
unit of a nucleic acid (subunit of RNA or DNA) consisting
of three parts: a sugar, a phospate group, and a base
(DNA: ATCG or RNA: AUCG).
Polymerase Chain Reaction
(PCR): A technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by
incubating with special primers, DNA polymerase molecules
Primary Structure: The
level of protein structure referring to the specific
sequence of amino acids.
three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a
set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA): A
single-stranded nucleic acid molecule involved in protein
synthesis, the structure of which is specified by
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