SP.9.1 - The earth's place in the solar system can be observed through patterns of change in seasons, lunar phases, the changing position of the sun over time, and the location of constellations in the night sky.

SP.9.2 - There are many stars which are very far away; the sun is the star closest to the earth.

SP.9.3 - Most astronomical objects are so far away that we cannot visit them, but we can observe them from afar.


SI.9.1 - Objects within the solar system orbit the sun and have physical characteristics which distinguish them from one another; many daily, monthly, seasonal and annual patterns in the earth's skies result from the earth's movement in our solar system.

SI.9.2 - The physical characteristics, motions, and positions of astronomical objects (sun, moon, planets, and stars) have been observed and recorded by telescopes and space probes to find long-term patterns. Observation of these patterns has enabled us to make calendars.

SI.9.3 - Astronomers use different types of tools (telescopes, space probes, etc.) to collect information about objects in the solar system and universe.


SJ.9.1 - The observable universe is composed of objects that form systems.

which vary in size and composition, from solar systems to galaxies.

SJ.9.2 - By studying the features of planets in the solar system and light that is received from the stars, the composition, age, and history of the universe can be reconstructed.

SJ.9.3 - Electromagnetic energy is the primary source of information about the universe.


SH.9.1 - All objects in the universe are composed of the same types of matter and subject to the same physical laws which apply on earth.

SH.9.2 - The Big Bang theory and stellar evolution provide explanation for the formation of subatomic particles and the chemical elements.

SH.9.3 - Models are used to predict and explain astronomical phenomena from data collected over long periods of time.