SP.15.1 - Living things interact with other living things and the surrounding

physical environment as they acquire resources in order to sustain

life and to grow.

SP.15.2 - Living things must gain energy from their environment, either

by converting it from sunlight or by eating other organisms or organic


SP.15.3 - Earth species has its own life cycle, matched to particular events

in its environment; as environments change, so have the numbers and types

of organisms.

SP.15.4 - Human practices can often affect the well-being of other species

in the environment.


SI.15.1 - All living things interact with each other and with the physical

environment; interactions may have helpful, harmful, or neutral effects on

the organisms involved.

SI.15.2 - Food chains and food webs describe the system of energy flow

through ecosystem (energy production in photosynthesis, predation, and


SI.15.3 - Changes in one part of an ecosystem (physical changes, change

in populations, change over time) affect other parts of the ecosystem.

SI.15.4 - Reduction of geographic and ecological ranges by human activities

within ecosystems have contributed to the reduction or extinction of

many species.


SJ.15.1 - Predation and competition for resources are important regulators

of populations within ecosystems; however, the ability to survive within

the physical environment through reproduction may be the most difficult

task faced by most organisms and may be the prime factor underlying both

adaptation and extinction.

SJ.15.2 - Energy and matter are transferred among organisms within each

ecosystem, but the efficiency of energy transfer decreases upward through

food chains and food webs.

SJ.15.3 - Ecosystems are dynamic, and they change through time as climate,

availability of resources, and species' compositions change.

SJ.15.4 - Ecosystems often exist in a fragile balance; humans can manage

ecosystems to preserve their diversity and well-being through careful



SH.15.1 - The physiochemical conditions of an environmental limit the biotic

forms which may interact and compete for its resources.

SH.15.2 - Organisms are adaptable, dynamic systems that continually

exchange energy and matter with their environments, often in cycles

with some form of self-regulation.

SH.15.3 - Because of the intricate relationships that exist among species in

a community and because of abiotic features of the biome, a change in one

part of ecosystem may have far-reaching consequences to the system.

SH.15.4 - Land use, pollution, energy use, and application of technology all

involve ethical considerations for individuals and society.