SP.10.1 - The earth's surface has not always had its present form; it has changed over time.

SP.10.2 - Most rocks are combinations of several different substances, and they are formed in many different environments.

SP.10.3 - The earth is very old and its surface is constantly changing through the action of forces within the earth and processes on its surface.

SP.10.4 - All resources used by humans ultimately come from the earth.


SI.10.1 - Both the continents and ocean bottoms are divided into plates,which ride on the mantle very slowly; these movements result in changes on the earth's surface.

SI.10.2 - Minerals vary in their hardness, crystal form, and color because they have different chemical compositions and because they were formed under different conditions within or on the earth.

SI.10.3 - The earth is about 4.6 billion years old. The oldest rocks in an undisturbed strata are at the bottom while the most recent are at the top; rock strata may be studied and compared for information regarding theirrelative age and the sequence of life forms found in the fossil record.

SI.10.4 - Many resources are nonrenewable and must be conserved.


SJ.10.1 - During geologic time, tectonic forces - for which there are several lines of evidence - have been responsible for all the major features of the earth's crust, from mountains and valleys to ocean floors and trenches.

SJ.10.2 - Rocks are classified by how they were formed; and by theirmineral content and the unique properties of constituent minerals.

SJ.10.3 - Changes on the earth's surface resulting from geomorphic processes (uplift, erosion, soil formation, etc) have resulted in changes in the life forms supported by the presence of different environments.

SJ.10.4 - Energy is required for the conversion of natural resources into useful materials.


SH.10.1 - The theory of plate tectonics unifies the earth sciences inrelating the creation and destruction of plates to other energy processes that are part of the hydrologic, carbonate, and rock cycles.

SH.10.2 - The past environments of earth and its life forms can be interpreted through examination of the geologic record found in sedimentary rocks.

SH.10.3 - The ages of geologic formations, of events in the distant past, and of the earth itself can be calculated through the observation ofdifferent, logically independent processes (radioactive decay of isotopes of different elements; comparison of rock sequences; fossil assemblages; rates of sedimentation, erosion, uplift, etc.).

SH.10.4 - Nonrenewable resources can be conserved through careful use and recycling.