General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Yttrium Symbol Y
atomic number 39 Atomic weight 88.9059
Density @ 293 K 4.47 g/cm3 Atomic volume 19.8 cm3/mol
Group Trans. Met. discovered 1794


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 1796.2 K boiling point 3537 K
Heat of fusion 11.40 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 363.0 kJ/mol
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1st ionization energy 615.6 kJ/mole electronegativity 1.22
2nd ionization energy 1181 kJ/mole electron affinity 29.6 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 1979.9 kJ/mole Specific heat 0.30 J/gK
heat atomization 423 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,8,18,9,2 electron configuration [Kr] 4d1 5s2
minimum oxidation number 0 maximum oxidation number 3
min. common oxidation no. 0 max. common oxidation no. 3
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Appearance & Characteristics

structure hcp: hexagonal close pkd color silvery
uses YAG laser, TV phosphor toxicity
hardness mohs characteristics forms protective oxide


reaction with air vigorous, = Y2O3 reaction with 6M HCl mild, = H2, YCl3
reaction with 6M HCl mild, = H2, YCl3 reaction with 15M HNO3 vigorous, = Y(NO3)3
reaction with 6M NaOH
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Other Forms

number of isotopes 1 hydride(s) YH2 YH3
oxide(s) Y2O3 chloride(s) YCl3


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 180 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) pm ionic radius (3+ ion) 104 pm
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thermal conductivity 17.2 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 16.9 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 22.7 A^3


source xenotime (phosphate) rel. abund. solar system 0.667 log
abundance earth's crust 1.51 log cost, pure 220 $/100g
cost, bulk $/100g
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World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.