General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Zirconium Symbol Zr
atomic number 40 Atomic weight 91.22
Density @ 293 K 6.4 g/cm3 Atomic volume 14.1 cm3/mol
Group Trans. Met. discovered 1789


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 2125.2 K boiling point 4473 K
Heat of fusion 16.90 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 58.20 kJ/mol
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1st ionization energy 660 kJ/mole electronegativity 1.33
2nd ionization energy 1266.8 kJ/mole electron affinity 41.1 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 2218.2 kJ/mole Specific heat 0.27 J/gK
heat atomization 609 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,8,18,10,2 electron configuration [Kr] 4d2 5s2
minimum oxidation number 0 maximum oxidation number 4
min. common oxidation no. 0 max. common oxidation no. 4
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Appearance & Characteristics

structure hcp: hexagonal close pkd color grayish-white
uses deodorants, fuel rod clad toxicity
hardness mohs characteristics hard, relatively inert


reaction with air mild, w/ht = Zr2O3 reaction with 6M HCl none
reaction with 6M HCl none reaction with 15M HNO3 passivated
reaction with 6M NaOH none
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Other Forms

number of isotopes 5 hydride(s) ZrH2
oxide(s) ZrO2 chloride(s) ZrCl3 ZrCl4


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 160 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) pm ionic radius (3+ ion) pm
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thermal conductivity 22.7 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 25 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 17.9 A^3


source Zircon (silicate) rel. abund. solar system 1.057 log
abundance earth's crust 2.24 log cost, pure 16 $/100g
cost, bulk 16 $/100g
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World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.