General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Vanadium Symbol V
atomic number 23 Atomic weight 50.9415
Density @ 293 K 5.8 g/cm3 Atomic volume 8.78 cm3/mol
Group Trans. Met. discovered 1830


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 2163.2 K boiling point 3623 K
Heat of fusion 20.90 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 0.452 kJ/mol
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1st ionization energy 650.3 kJ/mole electronegativity 1.63
2nd ionization energy 1413.5 kJ/mole electron affinity 50.7 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 2828 kJ/mole Specific heat 0.49 J/gK
heat atomization 514 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,8,11,2 electron configuration [Ar] 3d3 4s2
minimum oxidation number -1 maximum oxidation number 5
min. common oxidation no. 0 max. common oxidation no. 5
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Appearance & Characteristics

structure bcc: body-centered cubic color bright white
uses tool steel, V2O5 catalyst toxicity yes
hardness mohs characteristics soft


reaction with air mild, w/ht = V2O5, VN reaction with 6M HCl none
reaction with 6M HCl none reaction with 15M HNO3 mild
reaction with 6M NaOH none
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Other Forms

number of isotopes 2 hydride(s) VH VH2
oxide(s) VO V2O3 VO2 V2O5 chloride(s) VCl2 VCl3 VCl4


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 134 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) 93 pm ionic radius (3+ ion) 78 pm
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thermal conductivity 30.7 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 39.37 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 12.4 A^3


source U, Pb vanadates (misc) rel. abund. solar system 2.467 log
abundance earth's crust 2.1 log cost, pure 220 $/100g
cost, bulk $/100g
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