General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Gallium Symbol Ga
atomic number 31 Atomic weight 69.723
Density @ 293 K 5.907 g/cm3 Atomic volume 11.8 cm3/mol
Group Metal discovered 1875


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 302.98 K boiling point 2676 K
Heat of fusion 5.590 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 258.70 kJ/mol
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1st ionization energy 578.8 kJ/mole electronegativity 1.81
2nd ionization energy 1978.9 kJ/mole electron affinity 30 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 2963 kJ/mole Specific heat 0.37 J/gK
heat atomization 286 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,8,18,3 electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
minimum oxidation number 0 maximum oxidation number 3
min. common oxidation no. 0 max. common oxidation no. 3
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Appearance & Characteristics

structure special: complex color silvery-blue
uses photocells, transistors toxicity
hardness 1.5 mohs characteristics melts near r.t.wets glass


reaction with air mild, = Ga2O3 reaction with 6M HCl mild, = GaCl3, H2
reaction with 6M HCl mild, = GaCl3, H2 reaction with 15M HNO3
reaction with 6M NaOH mild, = [Ga(OH)4]2-, H2
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Other Forms

number of isotopes 2 hydride(s) GaH3
oxide(s) Ga2O3 chloride(s) GaCl Ga2Cl6


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 135 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) pm ionic radius (3+ ion) 76 pm
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thermal conductivity 48.3 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 57.471 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 8.1 A^3


source Bauxite (oxide) rel. abund. solar system 1.577 log
abundance earth's crust 1.2 log cost, pure 220 $/100g
cost, bulk $/100g
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World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.