General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Germanium Symbol Ge
atomic number 32 Atomic weight 72.59
Density @ 293 K 5.323 g/cm3 Atomic volume 13.6 cm3/mol
Group Metal, Carbon group discovered 1886


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 1210.6 K boiling point 3123 K
Heat of fusion 36.940 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 330.90 kJ/mol
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1st ionization energy 762.1 kJ/mole electronegativity 2.01
2nd ionization energy 1537.4 kJ/mole electron affinity 120 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 3301.7 kJ/mole Specific heat 0.32 J/gK
heat atomization 377 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,8,18,4 electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
minimum oxidation number -4 maximum oxidation number 4
min. common oxidation no. -4 max. common oxidation no. 4
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Appearance & Characteristics

structure diamond color gray-black
uses transistor, wide-ang lens toxicity
hardness mohs characteristics semimetal, brittle


reaction with air mild, w/ht = GeO2 reaction with 6M HCl none
reaction with 6M HCl none reaction with 15M HNO3 mild, = Ge(IV), NOx
reaction with 6M NaOH none
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Other Forms

number of isotopes 5 hydride(s) GeH4 Ge2H6 + more
oxide(s) GeO GeO2 chloride(s) GeCl2 GeCl4


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 122.3 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) 87 pm ionic radius (3+ ion) pm
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thermal conductivity 60.2 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 0 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 6.1 A^3


source Zn smelting by-product rel. abund. solar system 2.076 log
abundance earth's crust 0.7 log cost, pure 360 $/100g
cost, bulk $/100g
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World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.