General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Tin Symbol Sn
atomic number 50 Atomic weight 118.69
Density @ 293 K 7.30 g/cm3 Atomic volume 16.3 cm3/mol
Group Metal, Carbon group discovered 0


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 505.168 K boiling point 2896 K
Heat of fusion 7.029 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 295.80 kJ/mol
Back to the top


1st ionization energy 708.6 kJ/mole electronegativity 1.88
2nd ionization energy 1411.8 kJ/mole electron affinity 120 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 2943 kJ/mole Specific heat 0.227 J/gK
heat atomization 302 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,8,18,18,4 electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
minimum oxidation number -4 maximum oxidation number 4
min. common oxidation no. 0 max. common oxidation no. 4
Back to the top

Appearance & Characteristics

structure distorted diamond color silvery-white
uses solder, pewter, bronze toxicity
hardness 1.65 mohs characteristics resists corrosion;2 forms


reaction with air mild, w/ht, = SnO2 reaction with 6M HCl none
reaction with 6M HCl none reaction with 15M HNO3 mild, = SnO2, NOx
reaction with 6M NaOH mild, = H2, [Sn(OH)6] 2-
Back to the top

Other Forms

number of isotopes 10 hydride(s) SnH4 Sn2H6
oxide(s) SnO SnO2 chloride(s) SnCl2 SnCl4


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 140.5 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) pm ionic radius (3+ ion) pm
Back to the top


thermal conductivity 66.8 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 90.909 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 7.7 A^3


source Cassiterite (oxide) rel. abund. solar system 0.582 log
abundance earth's crust 0.3 log cost, pure 8 $/100g
cost, bulk 0.83 $/100g
Back to the top

World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.