General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Lead Symbol Pb
atomic number 82 Atomic weight 207.2
Density @ 293 K 11.34 g/cm3 Atomic volume 18.17 cm3/mol
Group Metal, Carbon group discovered 0


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 600.702 K boiling point 2024 K
Heat of fusion 4.799 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 177.70 kJ/mol
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1st ionization energy 715.6 kJ/mole electronegativity 2.1
2nd ionization energy 1450 kJ/mole electron affinity 35.1 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 3082 kJ/mole Specific heat 0.13 J/gK
heat atomization 196 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,8,18,32,18,4 electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
minimum oxidation number -4 maximum oxidation number 4
min. common oxidation no. 0 max. common oxidation no. 4
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Appearance & Characteristics

structure fcc: face-centered cubic color gray
uses batteries, solder, paints toxicity
hardness 1.5 mohs characteristics soft


reaction with air mild, w/ht, = PbO reaction with 6M HCl none
reaction with 6M HCl none reaction with 15M HNO3 mild, = NOx, Pb(NO3)2
reaction with 6M NaOH
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Other Forms

number of isotopes 4 hydride(s) PbH4
oxide(s) PbO Pb3O4 Pb2O3 PbO2 chloride(s) PbCl2 PbCl4


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 146 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) 133 pm ionic radius (3+ ion) pm
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thermal conductivity 35.3 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 48.431 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 6.8 A^3


source Galena (sulfide) rel. abund. solar system 0.498 log
abundance earth's crust 1.1 log cost, pure 1.5 $/100g
cost, bulk 0.077 $/100g
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World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.