General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Bismuth Symbol Bi
atomic number 83 Atomic weight 208.9804
Density @ 293 K 9.8 g/cm3 Atomic volume 21.3 cm3/mol
Group Metal, Nitrogen group discovered 1600


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 544.5 K boiling point 1837 K
Heat of fusion 11.30 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 104.80 kJ/mol
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1st ionization energy 703.3 kJ/mole electronegativity 2.02
2nd ionization energy 1610 kJ/mole electron affinity 91.3 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 2466 kJ/mole Specific heat 0.12 J/gK
heat atomization 207 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,8,18,32,18,5 electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
minimum oxidation number -3 maximum oxidation number 5
min. common oxidation no. 0 max. common oxidation no. 3
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Appearance & Characteristics

structure rhombohedral color white
uses antacid, fusible alloy toxicity
hardness 2.5 mohs characteristics brittle


reaction with air mild, w/ht = Bi2O3 reaction with 6M HCl none
reaction with 6M HCl none reaction with 15M HNO3 mild, = Bi(NO3)3, NOx
reaction with 6M NaOH
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Other Forms

number of isotopes 1 hydride(s) BiH3
oxide(s) Bi2O3 chloride(s) BiCl3 BiCl4


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 150 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) pm ionic radius (3+ ion) 117 pm
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thermal conductivity 7.92 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 9.363 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 7.4 A^3


source Pb smelting by-product rel. abund. solar system -0.842 log
abundance earth's crust -0.8 log cost, pure 11 $/100g
cost, bulk $/100g
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World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.