General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Gadolinium Symbol Gd
atomic number 64 Atomic weight 157.25
Density @ 293 K 7.895 g/cm3 Atomic volume 19.9 cm3/mol
Group Rare Earth, Lanthanides discovered 1880


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 1584.2 K boiling point 3273 K
Heat of fusion 10.050 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 359.40 kJ/mol
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1st ionization energy 592.6 kJ/mole electronegativity 1.17
2nd ionization energy 1167 kJ/mole electron affinity 50 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 1991 kJ/mole Specific heat 0.23 J/gK
heat atomization 398 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,8,18,25,9,2 electron configuration [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
minimum oxidation number 0 maximum oxidation number 3
min. common oxidation no. 0 max. common oxidation no. 3
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Appearance & Characteristics

structure hcp: hexagonal close pkd color silvery-white
uses alloys, CD disk toxicity
hardness mohs characteristics


reaction with air vigorous, = Gd2O3 reaction with 6M HCl mild, = H2, GdCl3
reaction with 6M HCl mild, = H2, GdCl3 reaction with 15M HNO3 mild, = Gd(NO3)3
reaction with 6M NaOH
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Other Forms

number of isotopes 7 hydride(s) GdH2 GdH3
oxide(s) Gd2O3 chloride(s) GdCl3


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 180 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) pm ionic radius (3+ ion) 107.8 pm
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thermal conductivity 10.5 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 7.9 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 23.5 A^3


source Monazite(phosphate),bastnaesite rel. abund. solar system -0.481 log
abundance earth's crust 0.7 log cost, pure 191 $/100g
cost, bulk $/100g
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World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.