General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Lithium Symbol Li
atomic number 3 Atomic weight 6.94
Density @ 293 K 0.53 g/cm3 Atomic volume 13.10 cm3/mol
Group Alkali Met. discovered 1817


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 453.74 K boiling point 1620 K
Heat of fusion 3.00 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 145.920 kJ/mol
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1st ionization energy 520.2 kJ/mole electronegativity 0.98
2nd ionization energy 7394.4 kJ/mole electron affinity 59.63 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 11814.6 kJ/mole Specific heat 3.6 J/gK
heat atomization 161 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,1 electron configuration [He] 2s1
minimum oxidation number -1 maximum oxidation number 1
min. common oxidation no. 0 max. common oxidation no. 1
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Appearance & Characteristics

structure bcc: body-centered cubic color silvery
uses batteries, lubricant toxicity
hardness 0.6 mohs characteristics soft, lightest solid


reaction with air vigorous, = Li2O reaction with 6M HCl vigorous, = H2, LiCl
reaction with 6M HCl vigorous, = H2, LiCl reaction with 15M HNO3 vigorous, = LiNO3
reaction with 6M NaOH mild, = H2, LiOH
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Other Forms

number of isotopes 2 hydride(s) LiH
oxide(s) Li2O chloride(s) LiCl


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 152 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) 90 pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) pm ionic radius (3+ ion) pm
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thermal conductivity 84.8 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 107.8 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 24.3 A^3


source Spodumene (silicate) rel. abund. solar system 1.757 log
abundance earth's crust 1.3 log cost, pure 27 $/100g
cost, bulk $/100g
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World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.