General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Carbon Symbol C
atomic number 6 Atomic weight 12.011
Density @ 293 K 2.62 g/cm3 Atomic volume 4.58 cm3/mol
Group Non-Metal, Carbon group discovered 0


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 3823.2 K boiling point K
Heat of fusion ? Heat of vaporization 355.80 kJ/mol
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1st ionization energy 1086.4 kJ/mole electronegativity 2.55
2nd ionization energy 2352.6 kJ/mole electron affinity 121.85 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 4620.4 kJ/mole Specific heat 0.71 J/gK
heat atomization 717 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,4 electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p2
minimum oxidation number -4 maximum oxidation number 4
min. common oxidation no. -4 max. common oxidation no. 4
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Appearance & Characteristics

structure hexagonal layers color black
uses fuel(coal), lubricant toxicity
hardness 0.8 mohs characteristics 6 forms: graphite,diamond,buckminsterfullerene


reaction with air vigorous, = CO2 reaction with 6M HCl none
reaction with 6M HCl none reaction with 15M HNO3 mild,w/ht= C6(COOH)6
reaction with 6M NaOH none
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Other Forms

number of isotopes 3 hydride(s) CH4 and many CxHy
oxide(s) CO CO2 chloride(s) CCl4


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 77.2 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) pm ionic radius (3+ ion) pm
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thermal conductivity 1.59 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 0.727 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 1.8 A^3


source Coal,Petroleum,Natural gas rel. abund. solar system 7.004 log
abundance earth's crust 2.3 log cost, pure 2.4 $/100g
cost, bulk $/100g
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World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.