General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Phosphorus Symbol P
atomic number 15 Atomic weight 30.97376
Density @ 293 K 1.82 g/cm3 Atomic volume 17.0 cm3/mol
Group Non-Metal, Nitrogen group discovered 1669


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 317.3 K boiling point 553.7 K
Heat of fusion 0.657 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 12.129 kJ/mol
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1st ionization energy 1011.7 kJ/mole electronegativity 2.19
2nd ionization energy 1903.2 kJ/mole electron affinity 72.07 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 2911.9 kJ/mole Specific heat 0.77 J/gK
heat atomization 315 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,8,5 electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p3
minimum oxidation number -3 maximum oxidation number 5
min. common oxidation no. -3 max. common oxidation no. 5
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Appearance & Characteristics

structure special: P4 tetrahedra color white-yellow
uses fertilizer, detergents toxicity yes
hardness 0.5 mohs characteristics (P4) pyrophoric, 15 forms


reaction with air vigorous,= P4O10, ignites reaction with 6M HCl none
reaction with 6M HCl none reaction with 15M HNO3 mild, = NOx
reaction with 6M NaOH mild, = PH3, may ignite
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Other Forms

number of isotopes 1 hydride(s) PH3 P2H4 + more
oxide(s) P4O10 P4O6 chloride(s) PCl3 PCl5 P2Cl4


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 110 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) pm ionic radius (3+ ion) 58 pm
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thermal conductivity 0.24 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 0 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 3.6 A^3


source Apatite (phosphate) rel. abund. solar system 4.017 log
abundance earth's crust 3 log cost, pure 4 $/100g
cost, bulk $/100g
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World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.