General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Sulfur Symbol S
atomic number 16 Atomic weight 32.06
Density @ 293 K 2.07 g/cm3 Atomic volume 15.5 cm3/mol
Group Non-Metal, Chalcogen discovered 0


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 386 K boiling point 717.9 K
Heat of fusion 1.7175 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization ?
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1st ionization energy 999.6 kJ/mole electronegativity 2.58
2nd ionization energy 2251 kJ/mole electron affinity 200.4144 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 3360.6 kJ/mole Specific heat 0.71 J/gK
heat atomization 279 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,8,6 electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p4
minimum oxidation number -2 maximum oxidation number 6
min. common oxidation no. -2 max. common oxidation no. 6
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Appearance & Characteristics

structure S8 rings color yellow(pale)
uses rubber, batteries (H2SO4) toxicity
hardness 2 mohs characteristics (S8)brittle, 19 forms


reaction with air vigorous, w/ht = SO2 reaction with 6M HCl none
reaction with 6M HCl none reaction with 15M HNO3 mild, = H2SO4, NOx
reaction with 6M NaOH none
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Other Forms

number of isotopes 4 hydride(s) H2S
oxide(s) SO2 SO3 chloride(s) S2Cl2 SCl2


ionic radius (2- ion) 170 pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 103 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) pm ionic radius (3+ ion) pm
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thermal conductivity 0.27 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 0 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 2.9 A^3


source Sulfur,pyrite,natural gas rel. abund. solar system 5.712 log
abundance earth's crust 2.4 log cost, pure 24 $/100g
cost, bulk $/100g
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World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.