General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Nickel Symbol Ni
atomic number 28 Atomic weight 58.71
Density @ 293 K 8.90 g/cm3 Atomic volume 6.59 cm3/mol
Group Trans. Met. discovered 1751


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 1726.2 K boiling point 3193 K
Heat of fusion 17.470 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 370.40 kJ/mol
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1st ionization energy 736.7 kJ/mole electronegativity 1.91
2nd ionization energy 1752.9 kJ/mole electron affinity 111.5 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 3393.4 kJ/mole Specific heat 0.44 J/gK
heat atomization 430 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,8,16,2 electron configuration [Ar] 3d8 4s2
minimum oxidation number -1 maximum oxidation number 4
min. common oxidation no. 0 max. common oxidation no. 2
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Appearance & Characteristics

structure fcc: face-centered cubic color silvery-white
uses alloys, coins, batteries toxicity yes
hardness mohs characteristics hard, takes a high polish


reaction with air mild, w/ht = NiO reaction with 6M HCl mild, = H2, NiCl2
reaction with 6M HCl mild, = H2, NiCl2 reaction with 15M HNO3 passivated
reaction with 6M NaOH none
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Other Forms

number of isotopes 5 hydride(s) NiH
oxide(s) NiO chloride(s) NiCl2


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 124 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) 83 pm ionic radius (3+ ion) 72 pm
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thermal conductivity 90.9 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 146.199 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 6.8 A^3


source sulfides, oxide/silicates rel. abund. solar system 4.693 log
abundance earth's crust 1.9 log cost, pure 7.7 $/100g
cost, bulk 0.76 $/100g
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World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.