General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Gold Symbol Au
atomic number 79 Atomic weight 196.9665
Density @ 293 K 19.32 g/cm3 Atomic volume 10.2 cm3/mol
Group Trans. Met. discovered 0


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 1337.63 K boiling point 3081 K
Heat of fusion 12.550 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 334.40 kJ/mol
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1st ionization energy 890.1 kJ/mole electronegativity 2.54
2nd ionization energy 1980 kJ/mole electron affinity 222.752 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy kJ/mole Specific heat 0.128 J/gK
heat atomization 366 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,8,18,32,18,1 electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
minimum oxidation number -1 maximum oxidation number 5
min. common oxidation no. 0 max. common oxidation no. 3
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Appearance & Characteristics

structure fcc: face-centered cubic color golden yellow
uses jewelry, electronics toxicity
hardness 2.75 mohs characteristics Inert, ductile malleable


reaction with air none reaction with 6M HCl none
reaction with 6M HCl none reaction with 15M HNO3 none
reaction with 6M NaOH none
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Other Forms

number of isotopes 1 hydride(s) none
oxide(s) Au2O3 chloride(s) AuCl AuCl3


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 144 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) 151 pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) pm ionic radius (3+ ion) 99 pm
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thermal conductivity 318 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 446.4 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 6.1 A^3


source Gold, gold bearing rock (misc) rel. abund. solar system -0.728 log
abundance earth's crust -2.4 log cost, pure 4400 $/100g
cost, bulk 1200 $/100g
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World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.