General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Copper Symbol Cu
atomic number 29 Atomic weight 63.546
Density @ 293 K 8.96 g/cm3 Atomic volume 7.1 cm3/mol
Group Trans. Met. discovered 0


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 1356.6 K boiling point 2843 K
Heat of fusion 13.050 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 300.30 kJ/mol
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1st ionization energy 745.4 kJ/mole electronegativity 1.95
2nd ionization energy 1957.9 kJ/mole electron affinity 118.5 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 3553.5 kJ/mole Specific heat 0.38 J/gK
heat atomization 338 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,8,18,1 electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s1
minimum oxidation number 0 maximum oxidation number 4
min. common oxidation no. 0 max. common oxidation no. 2
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Appearance & Characteristics

structure fcc: face-centered cubic color orange-red
uses wire, bronze, coins toxicity
hardness 2.75 mohs characteristics soft, ductile


reaction with air mild, w/ht = CuO, Cu2O reaction with 6M HCl none
reaction with 6M HCl none reaction with 15M HNO3 mild, = Cu(NO3)2, NOx
reaction with 6M NaOH
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Other Forms

number of isotopes 2 hydride(s) CuH
oxide(s) Cu2O CuO chloride(s) CuCl CuCl2


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 128 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) 91 pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) 87 pm ionic radius (3+ ion) 68 pm
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thermal conductivity 401 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 595.8 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 6.7 A^3


source Cu pyrite,chalcocite(sulfide) rel. abund. solar system 2.718 log
abundance earth's crust 1.7 log cost, pure 2.7 $/100g
cost, bulk 0.24 $/100g
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World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.