General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Cadmium Symbol Cd
atomic number 48 Atomic weight 112.41
Density @ 293 K 8.65 g/cm3 Atomic volume 13.1 cm3/mol
Group Trans. Met. discovered 1817


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 594.1 K boiling point 1038 K
Heat of fusion 6.192 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 99.570 kJ/mol
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1st ionization energy 867.7 kJ/mole electronegativity 1.69
2nd ionization energy 1631.4 kJ/mole electron affinity kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 3616.2 kJ/mole Specific heat 0.23 J/gK
heat atomization 112 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,8,18,18,2 electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2
minimum oxidation number 0 maximum oxidation number 2
min. common oxidation no. 0 max. common oxidation no. 2
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Appearance & Characteristics

structure distorted hcp structure color bluish-white
uses battery,yel. pigment(CdS) toxicity
hardness 2 mohs characteristics soft


reaction with air mild, w/ht = CdO reaction with 6M HCl mild, = H2, Cd(Cl)2
reaction with 6M HCl mild, = H2, Cd(Cl)2 reaction with 15M HNO3 mild, = Cd(NO3)2, NOx
reaction with 6M NaOH none
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Other Forms

number of isotopes 8 hydride(s)
oxide(s) CdO chloride(s) CdCl2


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 151 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) 109 pm ionic radius (3+ ion) pm
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thermal conductivity 96.9 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 146.413 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 7.2 A^3


source Sphalerite (sulfide) rel. abund. solar system 0.207 log
abundance earth's crust -0.7 log cost, pure 6 $/100g
cost, bulk $/100g
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World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.