General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons |Appearance & Characteristics
Reactions | Other Forms |Radius | Conductivity | Abundance
Encyclopedia Britannica articles


Name Scandium Symbol Sc
atomic number 21 Atomic weight 44.9559
Density @ 293 K 3.0 g/cm3 Atomic volume 15.0 cm3/mol
Group Trans. Met. discovered 1879


state (s, l, g) s
melting point 1812.2 K boiling point 3021 K
Heat of fusion 14.10 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization 314.20 kJ/mol
Back to the top


1st ionization energy 631 kJ/mole electronegativity 1.36
2nd ionization energy 1235 kJ/mole electron affinity 18.1 kJ/mole
3rd ionization energy 2389 kJ/mole Specific heat 0.6 J/gK
heat atomization 378 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons

Shells 2,8,9,2 electron configuration [Ar] 3d1 4s2
minimum oxidation number 0 maximum oxidation number 3
min. common oxidation no. 0 max. common oxidation no. 3
Back to the top

Appearance & Characteristics

structure hcp: hexagonal close pkd color silvery-white
uses no significant uses toxicity
hardness mohs characteristics soft


reaction with air vigorous, = Sc2O3 reaction with 6M HCl mild, = H2, ScCl3
reaction with 6M HCl mild, = H2, ScCl3 reaction with 15M HNO3 mild, = Sc(NO3)3
reaction with 6M NaOH
Back to the top

Other Forms

number of isotopes 1 hydride(s) ScH2 ScH3
oxide(s) Sc2O3 chloride(s) ScCl3


ionic radius (2- ion) pm ionic radius (1- ion) pm
atomic radius 162 pm ionic radius (1+ ion) pm
ionic radius (2+ ion) pm ionic radius (3+ ion) 88.5 pm
Back to the top


thermal conductivity 15.8 J/m-sec-deg electrical conductivity 19.2 1/mohm-cm
polarizability 17.8 A^3


source U extractn by-product rel. abund. solar system 1.534 log
abundance earth's crust 1.3 log cost, pure 1400 $/100g
cost, bulk $/100g
Back to the top

World Wide Web presentation of Chemicool Periodic Table is © Copyright 1996-99 by David D. Hsu. Some data were provided by and used with the permission of JCE Software and is owned and copyright by the Division of Chemical Education, Inc. Additional data were provided by Perkin-Elmer through Peter Lykos of IIT. The information may not be redistributed without the permission of David Hsu or JCE Software.