Earth Sciences Dynamic Earth Sciences 3. Plate tectonics operating over geologic time has changed the patterns of land, sea, and mountains on the Earth's surface. Student know:

a. Features of the ocean floor (magnetic patterns, age, and sea-floor topography) provide evidence for plate tectonics.
b. The principal structures that form at the three different kinds of plate boundaries
c. How to explain the properties of rocks based on the physical and chemical conditions in which they formed, including plate tectonics processes
d. Why and how earthquakes occur, and the scales used to measure their intensity and magnitude.
e. Two kinds of volcanoes, one with violent eruptions, producing steep slopes and the other with voluminous lava flows producing gentle slope
f. *Explanation for the location and properties of volcanoes that are due to hot spots and those that are due to subduction.

Investigation and Experimentation Standards

1. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations.
As a basis for understanding this concept, and to address the content the other four strands, students should develop their own
questions and perform investigations.
Students will:
a. select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as computer-linked probes, spread sheets, and graphing calculators)
to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data.
d. formulate explanations using logic and evidence.
f. distinguish between hypothesis and theory as science terms.
g. recognize the use and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality.
h. read and interpret topographic and geologic maps.
i. analyze the locations, sequences, or time intervals of natural phenomena (e.g., relative ages of rocks, locations of planets over
time, and succession of species in an ecosystem).
j. recognize the issues of statistical variability and the need for controlled tests.
k. recognize the cumulative nature of scientific evidence.
l. analyze situations and solve problems that require combining and applying concepts from more than one area of science.
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