4. Genes are a set of instuctions, encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism that specify the sequence of aminio acids in proteins characteristic of that organism. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know.

b. how to apply the genetic coding rules to predict the sequence of amino acids from a sequence of codons in RNA.

e. proteins can differ from one another in the number and sequence of amino acids

f. why proteins having different amino acid sequences typically have different shapes and chemical properties. *******

6. The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know:

b. how to apply base-pairing rules to explain precise copying of DNA during semi-conservative replication and transcription, and transcription of information from RNA to DNA.


1. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept, and to address the content the other four strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:

a. Select and use appropriate tools and technology(such as computer-linked probes, spread sheets, and graphing calculators) to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data.

c. Identify possible reasons for inconsistent results, such as sources of error or uncontrolled conditions.

d. Formulate explanations using logic and evidence.

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Sky Anderson
Date Last Modified: 8/29/99